The 2017 Potato Research Poster Session are available for viewing throughout the Potato Expo.
Stop by the Poster Session on Wednesday, January 4 from 2:00-3:00 pm in the Exhibit Hall, Level 1, Aisle 100 to meet the presenters and learn more about how their research can benefit your operation. This is your opportunity to meet one-on-one to discuss how their findings could impact and improve your operation.
Coordination and selection is facilitated by the Potato Association of America.
Chip Processing Trials: Continuing Progress
Dave Douches and Joe Coombs, Michigan State University, Department of Plant, Soil, and Microbial Sciences, East Lansing, MI
The Potatoes USA-funded National Chip Processing Trial (NCPT) is an effort to synergize the strengths of breeding programs to identify improved chip-processing varieties. The coordinated breeding effort includes early stage evaluation of coordinated trials in 11 locations. Since the inception of the trial in 2010, over 900 potato entries have been evaluated. The data will be connected with the Medius Ag database. More than 30 promising new breeding lines from the trials have been fast-tracked for commercial trials and processor evaluation. The NCPT is also a feeder for the national Potatoes USA/SNAC International trials.
Breeding Methods for Skin Set and Color in Red Fresh Market Potatoes
Jeffrey Endelman, Assistant Professor, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Horticulture, Madison, WI
Skin set and skin color are critical for red potato varieties, but their genetic basis is poorly understood. Research is underway to enable molecular breeding for these traits, and the first step is the development of a reliable phenotyping method. Skin color and skin set were quantified by image analysis of photos taken from replicated trials in 2015 and 2016. For the hue, lightness, and skinned surface area, the statistical reliability (which equals the squared correlation between the true and estimated genetic values on a 0–1 scale) was over 0.8 for all three traits.
Irrigation Water Use for Early Tuber Bulking and Maximum Tuber Yield of Russet
Samuel Y.C. Essah, Associate Professor of Agronomy and Horticulture, Colorado State University, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, San Luis Valley Research Center, Center, CO
Phone: 719-754-3594 ext.13
Most of the newly developed potato cultivars have not been evaluated for their water use efficiency. Studies were conducted at Colorado State University to evaluate the effect of reduced irrigation water (below estimated ET) on tuber bulking and tuber yield of two Russet potatoes. Reducing irrigation water by 18 percent caused early tuber bulking and increased marketable size tuber yield of Mercury Russet. An 11 percent reduction of irrigation water caused early tuber bulking and sustained marketable tuber yield of Rio Grande Russet. Data from these studies indicate that some new potato cultivars may be over-irrigated and need to be evaluated to save water.
of Commercial Potato Cultivars to Tuber Necrosis Caused by Tobacco Rattle and
Potato Mop Top Viruses
Neil C. Gudmestad, University Distinguished Professor and Endowed Chair of Potato Pathology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND
Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV) and Potato Mop Top Virus (PMTV) are two soil-borne viruses affecting potato in many production areas of the U.S. TRV and PMTV cause tuber necrosis in potato tubers making them unmarketable. Genetic resistance to TRV and PMTV is the only means to effectively and sustainably manage the tuber necrosis disease caused by these two viruses. The susceptibility of 63 potato cultivars, representing each market class of potato, will be presented, providing growers with varietal options to control these diseases in fields that are infested with either one or both of these pathogens.
Fertilizer Use and Expression of Key Enzymes Associated with Reducing Sugar
Accumulation in Potato
Tubers During Storage
Sanjay Gupta, Researcher, University of Minnesota, Department of Soil, Water and Climate, St. Paul, MN
Nitrogen fertilizer is used to maximize yield, but it also affects processing and storage quality through changes in sugar, free amino acid and protein concentrations in tubers. The role of N fertilization on plant establishment, tuber growth and yield has been extensively studied. However, reports on post-harvest storage and reducing sugar accumulation in response to N fertilization during growth are limited and inconclusive. Altered key enzyme expression during growth may have a significant effect on tuber reducing sugar accumulation during storage. The aim of the study is to explore the effect of N fertilizer use on cell metabolism and expression of enzymes related to reducing sugar formation during long term storage.
Pale Cyst Nematode, Globodera pallida Trap Crop Research in a Challenging
Pamela J.S. Hutchinson, Associate Professor, Potato Cropping Systems Weed Scientist, University of Idaho, Aberdeen Research and Extension Center, Aberdeen, ID
Phone: 208-397-4181 ext. 109
The first confirmed pale cyst nematode (PCN) (Globodera pallida) infestation in the U.S. occurred 2006 in Idaho. A regulatory area including a federal quarantine was established. Trap crop, Solanum sisymbriifolium (Litchi tomato or LT) research is being conducted in that area by the University of Idaho. LT, not native to Idaho, is restricted in the state. LT growers and researchers have to complete a detailed permitting process. Control of competitive and PCN-host weeds in LT is necessary to preventing invasiveness. Although challenging due to the situation, successful field research for this key component is being conducted.
Potato at the Diploid Level
Shelley Jansky, USDA/ARS and University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI; Dave Douches, Michigan State University, Department of Plant, Soil, and Microbial Sciences, East Lansing, MI, Gabe Gusmini, Research and Development Director – Agro
Discovery and Sustainability Research, PepsiCo, Inc.*
We are positioned to revolutionize potato by reconstructing it as a diploid inbred-line based crop. Currently, potato is an asexually propagated cross-pollinated tetraploid crop. Many ineffective and sometimes harmful variants of genes are carried by potato cultivars, hidden behind normal ones. It is difficult to remove the harmful genetic variants while retaining the beneficial ones. However, by moving to the diploid level and then inbreeding, we can expose and remove the negative variants, and efficiently assemble desirable genetic combinations. This approach has the potential to bring the research community a powerful tool to unlock the genetic potential of potato.
*Gabe Gusmini is an employee of PepsiCo, Inc. The views expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of PepsiCo, Inc.
of Metconazole on Disease Control and Yield in Potatoes
Jeff Miller, T. W. Taysom, A. Walston, and L. Welch, Miller Research, Rupert, ID
Trials were conducted in Idaho from 2012-2016 evaluating the effect of metconazole (formulated as Quash) on control of foliar diseases and yield improvement. Metconazole was effective in reducing early blight, but white mold control was inconsistent. Fungicide programs utilizing metconazole produced increases in total yield that could not be attributed solely to disease control. Rather, total yield was increased due to a physiological response to metconazole.
the Maturity of New Potato Varieties
Felix M. Navarro, Superintendent, Hancock Agricultural Research Station, Hancock, WI
Maturity in crops like corn and soybeans is relatively simple, measured by one or two traits. Potato maturity is multi-trait or multi-dimensional. Potato maturity definition gets further complicated depending on potato market category. We have conducted multi-year experiments that explore potato maturity traits such as plant canopy development, tuber growth, determinacy, tuber skin firmness, specific gravity, sugar composition and stolon length. Multi-dimensional PCA is used to select most relevant, less correlated variables to define potato maturity as a way to better understand new varieties and contribute information to variety adoption.
Potatoes Profitably for Organic Dry Matter Production in Western Nebraska
Alexander Pavlista, Professor, University of Nebraska, Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Scottsbluff, NE
Growing potato conventionally for dehydration is not economically feasible due to seed cost. The objective was to identify seed-piece sizes and spacing producing a profitable return. Atlantic potatoes were grown under dryland conditions using organic practices under semi-arid conditions. Seed-pieces were hand-cut into five weights and planted at five spacing. Combinations with the highest yield were not economical. Planting seed-pieces weighing 2 oz., and planted 15 and 18 inches apart in 30 inch rows were economically feasible. The net returns, adjusted for costs, were $326/hectare, greater than for dryland winter wheat and millet.
and Management of Fungicide-Resistant Strains of the Potato Pink Rot Pathogen
Rick D. Peters, Research Scientist, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Charlottetown Research and Development Centre,Charlottetown, PE Canada
Pink rot, caused by Phytophthora erythroseptica, is found in potato production areas around the globe and can cause significant loss of yield in field and storage. Management of pink rot has been complicated by the emergence of pathogen strains with resistance to fungicides commonly used to combat this disease. The objective was to describe recent surveys undertaken in Canadian potato production areas that document the distribution of fungicide-resistant pathogen strains. Research on the management of pink rot caused by fungicide-resistant pathogen strains at time of planting, during the field season and after harvest will be described.
Blemish Problems to Improve Marketing of Fresh Potatoes
Andy Robinson, Potato Extension Agronomist, North Dakota State University and University of Minnesota, Fargo, ND
A challenge fresh market potato producers have is to produce tubers free from blemishes, because consumers “buy with their eyes” and avoid selecting tubers with blemishes. Smooth-skinned tubers are especially vulnerable to blemishes. This project conducted a survey to determine the major blemish problems, determined the effects of various chemistries on blemishes, and evaluated the effects of blemishes on newer cultivars. The most prevalent blemishes were skin netting and external bruising. Some fungicides reduced black dot/silver scurf blemishes. Those that were most consistent were Emesto Silver, Quadris, Nubark Mancozeb + Moncot 70 DF, and Maxim 4 FS.
Green Grower Trials
Eric Brandvik, Research Specialist, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND
Struvite is a reclaimed, phosphate-rich mineral that releases phosphate when close to plant roots. Grower strip trials were conducted in 2015 and 2016 to evaluate the effectiveness of a struvite product, Crystal Green, on irrigated Russet Burbank, Umatilla Russet, and Bannock Russet potatoes in Minnesota and North Dakota. In general, there was a positive response to Crystal Green when potatoes were grown in alkaline or acidic soils. Potatoes grown in neutral pH typically did not respond to Crystal Green.
for Resistance to Columbia Root Knot Nematode in Potato
Vidyasagar Sathuvalli, Assistant Professor, Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University, Hermiston, OR; Chuck Brown, Research Geneticist, USDA-ARS, Prosser, WA; Kelly Vining, Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University; Sapinder Bali, Post-doctoral Research Associate, Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Oregon State University; Rich Quick Biological Science Technician, USDA-ARS, Prosser; Launa Hamlin, Scientific Assistant, Washington State University, Prosser, WA; and Brian Charlton, Research Agronomist, Klamath Basin Research and Extension Center, Department of Crop and Soil Science, Klamath Falls, OR.
The Columbia root knot nematode (CRKN) is a major pest in the Pacific Northwest potato production areas. Both roots and tubers are attacked, leading to decreases in yield and quality. Resistance to CRKN was identified from wild diploid species Solanum bulbocastanum accession SB22 and was successfully introgressed into tetraploid potato breeding material. To improve breeding efficiency and to develop CRKN-resistant potato cultivars, we are building genomic resources for SB22 and developing molecular markers linked to this resistance. Further, to expand the genetic base of CRKN-resistance we are screening wild potato germplasm. Our initial screening has identified several potential new sources of resistance to CRKN.
New Frozen Fry Varieties that Perform Consistently
Across Different Production Regions
Yi Wang, Assistant Professor, University of Idaho Kimberly Research and Extension Center, Kimberly, ID
Identification of new varieties that show consistent yield and quality across different growing conditions is always desired by the processing industry. In a three-year national agronomic trial conducted in six states (ID, ME, MN, OR, WA, WI) that represent the major frozen fry potato production area in the U.S., we identified exceptional new varieties that show stable performance both at harvest and after long-term storage. Those varieties include: Easton (ME), Dakota Russet (ND), and Payette Russet (ID). General conclusion is that the Genotype x Environment analysis is a good tool to investigate stability of new varieties across various growing environments.
Potato Breeding Clones and Varieties for Resistance to Three Potato Cyst
Richard G. Novy, Research Geneticist, USDA-ARS, Aberdeen, ID, and Pamela J.S. Hutchinson, Associate Professor, Potato Cropping Systems Weed Scientist, University of Idaho, Aberdeen Research and Extension Center, Aberdeen, ID
Phone: 208-397-4181 ext. 112
Two species of potato cyst nematodes, Globodera rostochiensis, and G. pallida, are found in the United States. Potato is also a host for a newly described Globodera species, G. ellingtonae. All three Globodera spp. were used in this study to evaluate resistance in twenty-two potato breeding clones and varieties. Each clone was replicated four to five times using similar methodologies conducted in two replicated experiments with each nematode species. Five entries had moderate to very high resistance to all three cyst nematodes. Resistance to G. ellingtonae was closely aligned with resistance to G. rostochiensis, suggesting that the significant effort to incorporate resistance to G. rostochiensis may provide twice the benefit.
Potato Pest Alerts – Helping Growers Manage Insect Pests in the Columbia Basin
Carrie Wohleb, Associate Professor/Regional Specialist,
Washington State University, Moses Lake, WA
Phone: 509-754-2011 ext. 4313
Potato growers in the Columbia Basin of Washington are challenged with the management of multiple insect pest species. To assist growers, WSU Extension personnel established an insect monitoring program in potato fields in the Columbia Basin in 2009. About 50 commercial potato fields are monitored weekly for aphids, beet leafhoppers, potato psyllids, potato tubeworms, and several other insect pests and spider mites. The monitoring program provides growers with up-to-date information about the distribution and prevalence of pests in the region and helps them anticipate and mitigate problems. The most important output from the program is a weekly emailed update known as the WSU Potato Pest Alerts.